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HYDROGEN-on-DEMAND 2

Some historical background - with an outline of how Hydrogen-on-demand (HHO) supplementation works.


In 1807, Issac de Rivaz (Switzerland), designed an "internal combustion engine". The engine was gas driven and used a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen to generate energy.


This was the first vehicle to run on an internal combustion engine. In subsequent years de Rivaz worked on his design, and in 1813 developed a 6 metres long car, weighing almost a ton.


In 1826, an Englishman called Samuel Brown, tested his own hydrogen-fuelled internal combustion engine by using it to propel a vehicle up Shooter’s Hill in south-east London.


Belgian-born Etienne Lenoir's ‘Hippomobile’ with a hydrogen-gas-fuelled one-cylinder internal combustion engine made a test drive from Paris to Joinville-le-Pont in 1860, covering some nine kilometres in about three hours.


All of the above, whilst self-evident and true - is no real surprise, because the first oil well on the planet was drilled by Edwin Drake (1819-1880) in the United States only in 1859 - and the rest, as they say, is history.


This brief hint at history contains, very simply, the conventional tale of the growth of the Oil and Motor industries.


Further passing references appear in the ‘1939-1945 war years’ suggesting that fliers, crossing the English Channel,  when forced to fly at ‘wave top heights’  in rough weather, and in fear of ‘ditching’ ... reported that their fuel ‘seemed to last longer’... and their aircraft ‘flew better’.


Many fliers stated that they would not have reached safety without this unexplained effect.


A modern interpretation of this phenomenon suggests that their engines were ingesting salt water spray containing water laden air (and thus, hydrogen) - with their fuel - and thereby, effectively, ‘supplementing’ their engine power.


In 1974, the Jet Propulsion Lab, at the California, USA, Institute of Technology presented a paper at a conference, at the University of Calgary, stating … ‘the results of our experimental investigation conclude that because of the characteristics of hydrogen, the mixture can rapidly burn in ‘hydrogen-gasoline mixture fuelled engines’ and thus toxic emissions are restrained.’


Later, Roy MacAlister, President Elect of the American Hydrogen Association stated … ‘the use of mixtures of ‘hydrogen in small quantities’, with (i.e ‘supplementing’ ) conventional fuels, offers significant reductions in exhaust emissions’ and ‘... using hydrogen as a combustion stimulant … it is possible for other fuels to meet future requirements for lower exhaust emissions in California and in an increasing number of additional states.

He further added ‘… relatively small amounts of hydrogen can dramatically increase horsepower and reduce exhaust emissions.’


In the period between 1997- 2008 the Canadian Hydrogen Energy Company introduced hydrogen (supplemental) fuelling for Trucks and other heavy vehicles; opening over 140 Certified HFI (Hydrogen Fuel Injection) centres throughout Canada, and thus effectively establishing the first ‘Hydrogen Highway’ in the world.


In 1977, John F. Cassidy, writing for NASA, in a paper titled EMISSIONS AND TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF A MULTI-CYLINDER PISTON ENGINE RUNNING ON GASOLINE AND A HYDROGEN-GASOLINE MIXTURE wrote … ‘an experimental program using a multi-cylinder reciprocating engine was performed ‘... to extend the efficient lean operating range of gasoline by adding hydrogen ...’ Both bottled hydrogen and (Hydrogen-on-Demand) produced by a methanol steam reformer were used. These results were compared with results for all gasoline ( Ed: gasoline only ... ) running.


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